Home : Quarterly Archives : Volume 35
Tredyffrin Easttown Historical Society
Source: July 1997 Volume 35 Number 3, Pages 81–96
Public Schools of Easttown and Tredyffrin Townships - Part II
With the implementation of the Common School Act, the trustees managing each school were replaced by an elected board of township school directors. School tuition was eliminated in favor of tax support which came partly in the form of levied school taxes, and partly in the form of a subsidy from the state. In Tredyffrin, the Davis or Howellville School, the Eagle School, the Carr School, the Presbyterian School, the Baptist or Union School and the Friends School all became part of the common school system. In Easttown, the Wayne School and the Glassley School likewise became part of the public schools.
The new school directors made some improvements to the existing facilities. In 1842, an increase in the numbers of school children necessitated the expansion of the Old Eagle School to its present size so that it could be reopened. An addition on the south side of the building doubled the school in size. At the same time, the door which had faced the road was closed, and a new portal opened in the southern end of the building. The Eagle School had closed in 1832 when the Carr School was built, and was thereafter used as a Sunday School, and sometimes as a dwelling. After the expansion, the school was to remain in use until 1872 when it was finally closed for good.
In 1852, Mt. Airy School was built on the north side of Old Lancaster Road east of the railroad underpass at Daylesford. It was built to serve the children living within two or three miles to the east and west. This school remained in use until 1892, when it was closed. The school was demolished in 1895, and the land sold for development.
A new, larger, two-story schoolhouse was built at Howellville in 1856, replacing one which had been built in 1810. In this schoolhouse were educated the young people living in Howellville and its vicinity. Graded classes were introduced here in 1873.
In Easttown, two new schools were added. One, the Leopard School, was built about 1852 on Leopard Road just off Darby-Paoli Road behind the Old Leopard Inn. This school was originally built with one story, but a second story was added in 1872, to be used as a town hall, lyceum and Sunday School. The money for the purpose was raised by subscription. Leopard School served the community around the village of Leopard and its vicinity. With the opening of the Leopard School, and the Mt. Airy School in Tredyffrin, the Wayne School was closed in 1852.
The other new school was the Ogden School, which was built on the west side of Waterloo Road, just north of the intersection with Church Road. The Ogden School served the community in and around the hamlet of Cabbagetown, later known as Waterloo Mills. This school was replaced in 1886 by a new school built around the corner, on the north side of Church Road between Beaumont Road and Waterloo Road.
The years between the Civil War and the turn of the century were busy years for the Tredyffrin and Easttown communities and for their schools. Population increased as the Pennsylvania Railroad developed the small villages along its Main Line.
In 1863, the Tredyffrin School Directors built the Walker School on the eastern end of Yellow Springs Road, and the Salem School on the western end of Yellow Springs Road. These new schools replaced the Diamond Rock School which was closed that same year.
Walker School was so named for the family which originally owned the land upon which the school was built. The Salem School was named for the Salem Methodist Church which adjoined the schoolhouse. A post office called Tablet was kept for a brief time in a general store in Cedar Hollow village on Yellow Springs Road. Tablet was the name of a brand of cracker carried by the store. For the few years the Tablet post office was in existence (1888-1901), the Salem School was also sometimes referred to locally as the Tablet School, though officially it was always called Salem School in the records of the School District.
In 1867, the Second Carr School, or Mt. Pleasant School, was erected east of the Old Carr School. It was felt that a newer, larger school was needed to accommodate the children of the neighborhood. The new school, a frame building with two classrooms on the first floor, was served by a single teacher for its eight grades of pupils. Another classroom was later added on the second floor. When the Mt. Pleasant School outgrew this space about 1880, the Old Carr School was reopened to hold the additional pupils.
A new schoolhouse bearing the name of Eagle School was erected in 1872 at Pechin's Corner, the corner of Upper Gulph and West Valley Roads, which was intended to replace the Old Eagle School which closed for good the same year. The school soon came to be called Stratford School, due to the railroad station and post office just down the road. This new school burned in 1885 and was rebuilt at the same location. The replacement school had two floors, with four classrooms on the first floor and two classrooms and an assembly room on the second floor. It was in this school building that the Tredyffrin High School began, and carried on its operations those first years from 1897 to 1902. It is also here that Tredyffrin Public Library was started in the mid-1960s. The building was torn down in 1971.
Fairview School was opened in a building which still stands on the north side of Swedesford Road just east of the present Gateway Shopping Center. It replaced both the Baptist School, which closed in 1860, and the Friends School, which closed in 1871. Fairview School remained open from 1872 until 1927, when it was closed and sold in 1930. It is now a residence.
In Easttown, the Glassley School, which had burned to the ground in 1863, was replaced by another built a short distance away. This new Glassley School operated as a school until 1888 when it was closed and sold. The new owner removed the structure. In 1882, a larger, one-story school was constructed to replace the original school in Leopard. Ogden School also received a new building in 1886.
It was decided to construct a new, larger school, in the growing village of Berwyn, to replace the Glassley School. Captain William Wayne and Isaac Cleaver, President and Secretary, respectively, of the Easttown Township School Board, were delegated to seek a site for the new school. They chose a site on the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike between Bridge Avenue and Central Avenue for the new school, which was named the Easttown Grammar School. When it was opened in 1888, the Glassley School closed.
Those citizens of Tredyffrin Township who resided in the village of Berwyn, seeing the Easttown School Board had erected a modern school on the Lancaster Turnpike, requested the Tredyffrin School Board to permit them to send their children to it. The Tredyffrin Board responded by erecting the North Berwyn School, built on the southeast corner of what is today Conestoga and Howellville Roads, in 1892. The school was built as a one-room schoolhouse, but later additions enlarged it to contain four classrooms. The school operated until 1932, when it closed. It was then renovated, and a second floor was added. Subsequently, it was used by the Tredyffrin-Easttown High School for its vocational and art classes. Today, it houses the Maintenance Department of the T/E Schools.
In 1890, the Tredyffrin School Board rented a room from Miss Ida Hall on Maple Avenue in Paoli. Two years later, a small schoolhouse was built on Chestnut Road in Paoli, on the present site of the First Union Bank.
At this time also, Mt. Airy School was closed, having been outgrown and fallen into disrepair and obsolescence. The School Board soon found a buyer for the property, Edward Hatton. Hatton cleared the lot and began to build a house.
Due to the rapid growth of the village of Paoli, the Chestnut Road School was itself soon outgrown. In 1902, a new school was built on the east side of South Valley Road. This school served the community until 1927, when a new, modern grammar school was constructed on the other side of the railroad at the corner of Fennerton Road and Central Avenue.
Paoli was not the only community to experience significant growth. Berwyn, too, felt the effects of an increased population and activity. In Berwyn, an addition in 1893 gave the 1888 school building a second floor containing three classrooms. A temporary two-room frame building was built on the south side of the Lancaster Turnpike between Bridge Avenue and Central Avenue. This was known as Building No. 2.
Public education in both Easttown and Tredyffrin was limited to primary and grammar schools. Secondary education, as we know it, did not exist in most of Pennsylvania until the 1890s. Previous to that time, secondary education was carried on in "academies", private institutions which had from the earliest days provided a mainly classical education to, first boys, then to girls, after their primary school years. Only those whose parents could afford the tuition, and appreciated the education provided by the academies, sent their children to them. These academies became the chief opponents of the extension of the Common School Act into secondary education. In 1887, general laws authorizing the establishment of high schools were passed by the General Assembly. The academies soon after declined in enrollment. Most either closed or were absorbed into the public school system.
In 1893, the law authorizing public high schools was amended to permit the opening of high schools in districts having a population of at least 5000 persons. In 1895, provision was made for every district in the state to open a high school. The citizens of Easttown did not wait long to take advantage of this law. In May of 1893, a public meeting was held in the Odd Fellows Hall, Berwyn, for the purpose of discussing and making plans for a high school in Berwyn. It was soon after that an architect was engaged, and contracts let, for the second floor addition to the Berwyn Grammar School already referred to.
The new Easttown Public High School opened in September of 1894, using two of the newly-constructed rooms. On June 2, 1896, the first Annual Commencement of the high school was held. The class numbered but five. In 1904, the first fouryear high school course was begun at the school. At about this same time, the high school students began to become involved in organized sports with other schools.
Meanwhile the Tredyffrin School Board decided that it was time to act to establish their own high school. They voted in 1897 to create the Tredyffrin High School. The high school met for classes in the Strafford School, at first occupying the west room on the second floor. It was only a two-year course, taught by Richard S. Macnamee, who was also Supervising Principal of the School District. Its first commencement was held at the same time as the Grammar School commencement on June 16, 1899. This was the last class to study at Strafford School, as the high school moved to the new Paoli School where it occupied the north classroom on the first floor. The high school course was expanded to three years. The school also began to participate in intermural sports as well.
In 1907, the General Assembly passed a supplement to its act of 1895, a law which gave two or more adjoining townships the right to erect and keep joint high schools. At a joint meeting of the school boards of Easttown and Tredyffrin, it was decided to merge the two high schools then existing into one joint high school, to be known as Tredyffrin-Easttown Joint High School. Land was secured on the southwest corner of Conestoga and Howellville Roads, across the street from the North Berwyn School, and a school building built. The students of Tredyffrin High School were brought to Berwyn, where they occupied temporary facilities until the new school was ready in December of 1908. Then the students of both high schools marched in procession to their new school, beginning an academic life which carried on until 1955 when Conestoga High School was opened and T-E High School closed.
An addition was made in 1928 which doubled the size and capacity of the building. Athletic fields were laid out around the school, and the vocational department moved into the vacated North Berwyn School in 1936. Another addition was added to the school in 1939, to house the junior high which separated academically from the high school, thereafter having its own administration and faculty.
Mt. Pleasant School had become crowded as well. The Old Carr School, which since the construction of the Mt. Pleasant School had been used as a chapel, was pressed into service to handle the overflow of pupils. Parents of these students requested that the School Board do something to alleviate the overcrowded conditions. In 1903, Mt. Pleasant School was closed and razed. A new, stone school building was built upon the same site. This new school was used until the 1940s. It was sold in 1952 to Hungerford Insulation.
The creation of the Easttown High School increased the use of the Berwyn Grammar School building. Accordingly, the School District built a new school, called Berwyn Primary School, in 1912 on Lancaster Avenue in the next block west of the Grammar School, at Central and Walnut Avenues. This done, Easttown consolidated its school children in Berwyn, closing both the Leopard School in 1920, and the Ogden School in 1922. Ogden School had been the last one-room, one-teacher school in the district. Both schools still stand and are used as private residences.
Former pupils of the Leopard School met about 1908 to form the Leopard School Association, which held its first annual reunion in 1909 and then on into the 1960s. Each spring, the old pupils and their teachers met on the old school grounds to renew acquaintences, and to remember the shared experiences of old-time schooling.
Around the same time, the old pupils of the Howellville School began to meet on their school grounds for the same purpose. When the Walker School was closed in 1923, its former students joined with those of the Howellville School to meet annually under the name of the Howellville-Walker School Association.
The Diamond Rock Old Scholars Association was formed in 1897 to restore and care for the old school. This organization held annual open houses to remember the school, and to raise money to restore the old school which had by that time fallen into a deep state of disrepair. The Diamond Rock Old Scholars continue to meet to this day.
Howellville School, in service for nearly 200 years, burned to the ground in a fire which occurred on Easter Sunday, April 9, 1922. An unexpected cyclone on April 5, 1923 tore the roof off the Walker School, depositing the school bell and its bell tower in a nearby field. With these schools taken out of service, the School District was left with seven schools. Because of the loss of the two schools, those remaining became seriously overcrowded. Several of these schools were dilapidated and outmoded. The School Board accepted the recommendations of the State Department of Public Instruction to construct new, modern schools at Strafford and Paoli.
A new, larger Strafford School was built on a piece of property adjoining the old Strafford School. At Paoli, however, property was purchased on the north side of the Pennsylvania Railroad tracks at the corner of Fennerton Road and East Central Avenue. During the course of their service, each of these schools received additions. Additions were made to Strafford School in 1951 and 1956. Paoli was expanded in 1956. The old high school at Strafford was closed, but remained school property, opening in the 1960s temporarily to relieve overcrowding. The old Paoli Grammar School on South Valley Road was sold off and remodeled into apartments which still stand.
With the opening of the new schools, both Fairview School and Presbyterian School, the last two one-room, one-teacher schools in Tredyffrin, were closed and sold. Both are presently residences.
The school authorities in Easttown decided to upgrade the facilities for its consolidated school early in 1930. They acquired a tract of land on the south side of First Avenue, east of Bridge Street in Berwyn, hired architects and let bids for the construction of a new Easttown Elementary School. The new school was first occupied in the fall of 1932. In 1933, the old Grammar School, closed in 1926, was razed, and its annex, Building No. 2, used for a time as the Berwyn Library, sold to the local branch of the American Red Cross. The annex is now offices.
The Tredyffrin school authorities, meanwhile, decided in 1932 to close the North Berwyn School, which had become dilapidated and outmoded. Its students were sent to the new Berwyn School in Easttown.
The Tredyffrin School Board also rented the vacated Berwyn Primary School from the Easttown authorities. The school was refurbished and renamed the Lincoln Highway School. This school, along with the Mt. Pleasant School, were staffed with Afro-American teachers in order to instruct the black pupils of both school districts. This was the first time segregated schools were organized in either Tredyffrin or Easttown. The parents of the black pupils rejected the segregation of their children from the white pupils. They took their children out of school and taught them; in make-shift schools, in homes, and at Mount Zion A.M.E. Church in Devon. Suit was brought against the two school boards in Federal Court. After two years of bitter legal disputation, the two boards dropped the plan, and the black students returned to the general school population.
In 1938, the Tredyffrin School Board decided to close the Salem School and send its students to the Lincoln Highway School. An inability to correct water seepage into the basement of the school, and persistent pollution of the water supply, were cited as causes for their decision. Immediately, Salem School parents organized a protest which led the Board to relent for a year until the State Board of Health pressed them to close the school. The Salem School, which consisted of the original one-story structure and an adjoining two-story frame building, were sold by the School Board in 1946.
The two school boards made a significant change in the grade configuration of their schools during the mid-1930s, upon the recommendation of the State Department of Public Instruction. This was to change the program from the traditional 8-4 configuration: eight grades in the elementary school and four in the high school, to one of a 6-3-3 program, in which there were six grades in elementary school, three in a junior high school, and the three grades in the high school. This change in form made necessary the addition, in 1939, of a wing to the high school in order to house the new junior high school.
All 7th, 8th and 9th grade Tredyffrin students were transferred to the new junior high school, as were the Easttown 9th grade pupils. Easttown 7th and 8th grade pupils did not transfer to the junior high school until 1946. The senior high school and the junior high school occupied the same building, but were administered and staffed separately. The addition of a junior high school to the school system reduced the number of students in the elementary schools. The Lincoln Highway School was no longer needed, and was closed, in 1939.
Following the end of World War II, the Tredyffrin and Easttown schools entered a period of sudden and high growth in the number of children using the schools. The necessary changes, which were made to cope with the influx of children and the resulting strain on the facilities, have made the Tredyffrin and Easttown schools very different systems from what they were in 1945. In 1949, the school board came to the conclusion that, while the facilities at that time were adequate, in ten years they would be strained to cope with the educational needs of an increasing generation of school children, the "baby-boomers." Accordingly, plans were made to make additions to the existing schools, Easttown, Paoli and Stratford, and to build new schools.
In 1947 and 1951, the General Assembly passed legislation which permitted school districts to consolidate on the elementary level as well as on the secondary level. In 1953, the Tredyffrin and Easttown School Boards merged. The high school, however, came under the authority of a new jointure which included Tredyffrin and Easttown, and East Whiteland, Malvern, Willistown and Charlestown as well. This jointure called itself the Paoli Area High School Authority.
Most of the work organizing this jointure was led by Dr. Hobson C. Wagner, who as the superintendent of the T-E Joint High School Board, spear-headed the effort to expand the school system. Dr. Wagner, unfortunately, passed away before the jointure was finally formed. He was succeeded by Dr. J. Maurice Strattan, who completed the work.
The Paoli Area High School Authority operated until 1966 when the Tredyffrin-Easttown Schools, and the other school districts comprising the secondary school jointure, separated. Malvern, East Whiteland, Willistown and Charlestown then created the Great Valley School District by joining together. During the period of its existence, however, the Paoli Area jointure planned, and constructed, a new high school to replace Tredyffrin-Easttown Senior High School, a second high school, and two additional junior high schools.
Conestoga High School was built in 1955 at the northeast corner of of Conestoga and Irish Roads, about two blocks from T-E High School. When this new high school opened, the Junior High School, which had been confined to one wing of the old high school building, moved into the entire building. Conestoga High School has enjoyed an enviably fine reputation. Its graduates have distinguished themselves in educational and vocational pursuits since graduation. The high school has been added onto three times, in 1966, 1974, and in 1983. Its principals have been Dr. B. Anton Hess (1955-1957), Karl A. Zettelmoyer (1957-1971), Dr. John C. Rittenmeyer (1971-1988) and Dr. Daniel E. Waters (1988-1993). Currently, Dr. Kaye H. Pollock is principal.
The jointure constructed two additional junior high schools; General Wayne, in Willistown, in 1958, and Valley Forge, in Tredyffrin, in 1965; and another high school, Great Valley, in East Whiteland, in 1966. When the jointure broke up in 1966, Valley Forge Junior High School came under the authority of the Tredyffrin-Easttown Schools. This school had been built at the corner of Walker and Valley Forge Roads.
In addition to building Valley Forge Junior High School, the School Board has built several elementary schools to cope with increased enrollment. Devon Elementary School was built on a site at the corner of Sugartown and Fairfield Roads, in Easttown, in 1957. Valley Forge Elementary School was built on Walker Road, east of Valley Forge Road, in 1958. Hillside Elementary School was constructed in 1961 on Howellville Road, west of Cassatt Road. New Eagle Elementary School was built on Pugh Road, between West Valley Road and Old Eagle School Road, in 1964. Beaumont Elementary School was erected in 1965 at the corner of Beaumont Road and Newtown Street Road in Easttown.
The size of the rising generation, and the affluence of their parents during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, combined with the desire on the part of the community to obtain the best education they could for their youngsters. The result was an unprecedented level of funding and support for the public school system -- support which would have no doubt been envied by previous generations of teachers and school directors.
A decline in the school-age population, and the economic difficulties experienced nationally, led the School Board to make changes during the 1970s and early 1980s. The earliest portions of T-E Junior High School were removed in 1970 to be replaced by modern additions designed to upgrade the facility and lengthen the life of the building. Berwyn Elementary School was closed in 1977, and its students sent to Devon, Beaumont and Hillside Schools. The building was converted to house school district offices, as well as, in 1982, the Easttown Township offices, and Easttown Township Library. Strafford School was closed in 1981. Its students were sent to New Eagle School. The building itself was sold to a group
which opened the private Woodlynde School therein in 1984. Paoli School was also closed in 1981. Its students were sent to Hillside School. The building, which for the past ten years has housed offices designed to incubate new or innovative businesses, will soon return to its original uses when the private Delaware Valley Friends School moves in and sets up shop.
The two junior high schools, Tredyffrin-Easttown and Valley Forge, became intermediate schools in 1987 with the addition of students from the 5th and 6th grades -as the 9th grade was sent to the high school. This has created the present grade configuration of 4-4-4. Later, in 1992, the intermediate schools became known as middle schools.
Dr. Maurice Strattan was succeeded as superintendent of schools by Dr. George Garwood. Dr. Jamieson McKenzie then served less than two years, followed by Barry Yocom as acting superintendent for one year. Currently, the T/E superintendent of schools is Dr. Theodore C. Foot.
Today, in 1996, the Tredyffrin/Easttown Schools consist of a high school: Conestoga High School; two middle schools: Tredyffrin-Easttown and Valley Forge Middle Schools; and five elementary schools: Beaumont, Devon, Hillside, New Eagle and Valley Forge Elementary Schools. Further changes and challenges await in the future.
THOSE WHO HAVE SERVED AS SUPERINTENDENT (OR SUPERVISING PRINCIPAL) IN TREDYFFRIN-EASTTOWN JOINT SCHOOLS
Richard C. Macnamee, 1908-1914
Wilmer K. Groff, 1930-1941
George F. Garwood, 1968-1989
Theodore C. Foot, 1991Top
Chester County Historical Society Library. West Chester, PA - Newspaper clippings file.
Tredyffrin Easttown History Club Quarterly. Berwyn. PA: 1937-1996
Bradley, Mildred F, "Early Schools in Tredyffrin Township," Vol. 1, No. 4 (1938 July), pages 22-23.
Bradley, Mildred F, "Old Glassley School," Vol. 1, No. 5 (1938 October), pages 13-18.
Bradley, Mildred R, "Old Carr School," Vol. 2, No. 4 (1939 October), pages 82-87.
Bradley, Mildred R, "Old Eagle School," Vol. 4, No. 2 (1941 April), pages 13-19.
Bradley, Mildred R, "The Wayne School," Vol. 6, No. 2 (1945), pages 40-41.
Fisher, Mildred R, "Two Centuries of Tredyffrin Schools, 1700-1900," Vol. 7, No. 4 (1953 February), pages 95-99.
Kneass, Louise H., "Notes on Daylesford [Wayne School and Mt. Airy School]," Vol. 8, No. 3 (1955 April), pages 71 -77.
Fisher, Mildred R, "Secondary Education in Tredyffrin-Easttown," Vol. 8, No. 4 (1955 October), pages 80-115.
Nuzum, Sara B., "The Easttown Grammar School Alumni Association," Vol. 10, No. 3 (1959 April), pages 46-50.
Sachse, Julius R, "Reminiscences of a Shady Road and Quiet Nook in Easttown [Leopard School]," Vol. 10, No. 4 (1959 October), pages 66-82.
Edwards, Bonnie, "Mt. Pleasant Village and Carr School," Vol. 12, No.1 (1962 April), pages 2-12.
Lutz, Walter J., "Diamond Rock School," Vol. 18, No. 1 (1980 January), pages 3-13.
Notes and Comments, "[Diamond Rock School] Correction," Vol 18, No. 2 (1980 April), page 66.
Roberts, George B., "Tredyffrin-Easttown High School During the First World War Years," Vol. 18, No. 4 (1980 October), pages 103-110.
Notes and Comments, "Diamond Rock School Featured in I. U. Logo," Vol. 19, No. 1 (1981 January), page 34.
TenBroeck, Mollie A. and Elizabeth K. Weaver, "The Walker School: Sixty Years of Neighborly Learning," Vol. 19, No, 3 (1981 July), pages 69-76.
Weaver, Elizabeth K., "Teachers at the Walker School," Vol. 19, No. 4 (1981 October), page 136.
Tunnell, Mark L, "The Story of a House: A History of the Hatton House on Old Lancaster Road [Mt. Airy School]." Vol. 20, No. 2 (1982 April), pages 51-62.
McNeil, Linda, "Diamond Rock School: A Picture Portfolio," Vol. 21, No. 2 (1983 April), pages 51-60.
Notes and Comments, "Valley Forge Elementary School Marks 25th Anniversary," Vol. 21, No. 2 (1983 April), page 76.
Chester County Teachers' Hand Book, "The Last Year of Separate High Schools in Tredyffrin and Easttown Townships," Vol. 21, No. 3 (1983 July), pages 105-107.
Dunwoody, Eleanor Wilson and Stanley K. Landis, "The One-Room School," Vol. 24, No. 4 (1986 October), pages 151-159.
Borgson, Hob, "Free Schooling for the Poor," Vol. 25, No. 4 (1987 October), pages 128-134.
Cook, Anne, "Diamond Rock School," Vol. 26, No. 2 (1988 April), page 80.
Sutcliffe, Marie, "Old Eagle School," Vol. 26, No. 4 (1988 October), pages 141-144.
Fry, Barbara, "A Sleigh Ride [Leopard School]," Vol. 27, No. 1 (1989 January), page 28.
Notes and Comments, "Co-Founder of Vanguard School Retires," Vol. 27, No. 1 (1989 January), page 39.
Winthrop, Grace, Mary Barbee and Janet Perry, "'Readin', 'Ritin', and 'Rithmetic: Schools Before the Public School Law," Vol. 27, No. 2 (1989 April), pages 58-66.
Goshorn, Bob, "Public Schooling in the Nineteenth Century," Vol. 27, No. 4 (1989 October), pages 131-138.
Notes and Comments, "New Eagle School Marks 25th Birthday," Vol. 28, No. 3 (1990 July), pages 120-121.
Tredyffrin Board of School Directors Minute Book, "School Rules in 1869," Vol. 29, No. 1 (1991 January), pages 34-36.
Goshorn, Bob, "Our Public Schools During the First Half of the Twentieth Century," Vol. 29, No. 2 (1991 April), pages 65-76.
Goshorn, Bob, "Conestoga High School," Vol. 34, No. 1 (1996 January), pages 3-19.
Cook, Anne and Jane Breinholt, History for Stratford School Centennial, 1872-1972. Stratford, PA: Stratford School P. T. A., 1972.
Donehoo, George P., Pennsylvania: A History. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1926.
Elliott, Raymond A., Diamond Rock Octogonal School: Established in 1818. Diamond Rock Old Scholars Association, n. d.
Fletcher, Stevenson Whitcomb, Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life, 1640-1840. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1950.
Fletcher, Stevenson Whitcomb, Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life, 1840-1940. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1955.
Gulliford, Andrew, America's Country Schools. Washington, DC: Preservation Press, 1984.
Johnson, Clifton, Old-Time Schools and School-Books. New York: Dover Publications, 1963.
Kent, Donald H., The Fight for Free Schools in Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Historic Pennsylvania Leaflet No. 6, 1953.
Klein, Philip S. and Ari Hoogenboom, A History of Pennsylvania. Second and enlarged edition.
Martin, Harland J., "Berwyn's Schools Since 1877," in Berwyn Centennial 1877-1977 Souvenir Program. Berwyn, PA: Berwyn Devon Business Association, n.d.
Pennsylvania Historical Survey, County Government and Archives in Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1947.
Pleasants, Henry, The Old Eagle School. Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co. 1909.
Wallace, Paul A. W., Pennsylvania: Seed of a Nation. New York: Harper & Row, 1962.
An Historical Account of the Old Carr School House. Tredyffrin Township. Chester County. PA. Published by the Sunday School at Mt. Pleasant, n.d.Top
SCHOOLS IN EASTTOWN AND TREDYFFRIN TOWNSHIPS
(Those marked with * were still standing as of 1997)
TREDYFFRIN TOWNSHIP SCHOOLS
Davis School, ca. 1720-1810
Great Valley Baptist School, ca. 1720-
Great Valley Presbyterian School, ca. 1720
Valley Friends School, ca. 1720-
Old Eagle School (log meeting house), 1767-1788
*Diamond Rock or Octogonal School, 1818-1864
*Old Carr School, 1832-1866
*Mt. Pleasant School, 1903-1952
Mt. Airy School, No. 2, 1852-1892
*Salem or Tablet School, No. 4, 1863-1939
*Walker School, No. 5, 1863-1923
*Fairview School, 1872-1927
1st Paoli School, 1890-1893
*North Berwyn School, 1892-1932
*Lincoln Highway School, 1932-1939
Tredyffrin High School at Stratford School, 1897-1902
EASTTOWN TOWNSHIP SCHOOLS
Gilbert Wayne's School, ca. 1750-
Old Glassley School, 1808-1863
1st Ogden School, ca. 1850-1886
1st Leopard School, ca. 1852-1882
Easttown(or Berwyn) Grammar School, 1888-1926
*Easttown (or Berwyn)Primary School, 1912-1931
Easttown Public High School, 1894-1908Top
*Paoli Elementary School, 1927-1981
*Strafford Elementary School, 1927-1981
*Easttown (or Berwyn) Elementary School, 1932-1977
*Devon Elementary School, 1957-present
*Valley Forge Elementary School, 1958-present
*Hillside Elementary School,1961 -present
*New Eagle Elementary School, 1964-present
*Beaumont Elementary School, 1965-present
*Tredyffrin-Easttown Junior High School, 1939-1987
*Valley Forge Junior High School, 1965-1987
Tredyffrin-Easttown High School, 1908**-1955 (Formally dedicated February 9,1909)
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